Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
As defined by Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. It was founded in 1926 originally as the Advisory Council of Science and Industry.
Research highlights include the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy, development of the first polymer banknote, invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Australia, such as the introduction of Myxomatosis and Rabbit calicivirus which causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease for the control of rabbit populations. CSIRO's research into ICT technologies has resulted in advances such as the Panoptic Search Engine (now known as Funnelback) and Annodex.
In October 2005 the journal Nature announced that CSIRO scientists had developed near-perfect rubber from resilin, the elastic protein which gives fleas their jumping ability and helps insects fly. On 19 August 2005, CSIRO and UTD (University of Texas at Dallas) announced they were able to make transparent carbon nanotube sheets that will bring carbon nanotube products to the masses.
Research Groups and Initiatives
Employing over 6600 staff, CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and biological control research stations in France and Mexico. The primary roles of CSIRO include contributing to meeting the objectives and responsibilities of the Australian Federal Government and providing new ways to benefit the Australian community and the economic and social performance of a number of industry sectors through research and development.
Research undertaken by CSIRO is divided into operational 'Divisions'. As at September 2010, these divisions are:
Astronomy and Space Science (including the Australia Telescope National Facility)
Earth Science and Resource Engineering
Food and Nutritional Sciences
Land and Water
Marine and Atmospheric Research
Materials Science and Engineering (including former Molecular and Health Technologies)
Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics
Process Science and Engineering
Ecosystems Sciences (including Entomology)
In 2007, the divisions of Industrial Physics and Manufacturing and Materials Technology merged to form a new division, Materials Science and Engineering. On 1 July 2010, the Materials Science and Engineering division then merged with Molecular and Health Technologies to form a new division, also called Materials Science and Engineering, led by Dr Calum Drummond.
In addition, CSIRO is a participant in a number of joint ventures, including:
Ensis — forestry and forest products, with New Zealand's Forestry research organisation named Scion
Food Science Australia — with the Victorian Government (known as "CSIRO Division of Food and Nutritional Sciences" as of 1 July 2009)
The Australian e-Health Research Centre — with the Queensland Government
The CSIRO "Flagship" initiative was designed to integrate, focus and direct national scientific resources. In May 2005, the government announced the launch of CSIRO's $97 million Flagship Collaboration Fund, which is intended to encourage cooperative research between universities, CSIRO and other research agencies.
As of Oct 2009, CSIRO supported the following 9 "Flagships":
Minerals Down Under
Water for a Healthy Country
Wealth from Oceans
In April 2007, funding for a new Flagship was announced by the Federal government. It will be investigating the effects of Climate Change.
The Air Quality Modelling and Dispersion Team
CSIRO's Air Quality Modelling and Dispersion Team is a part of the Marine and Atmospheric Research division.
Some of the widely used air quality dispersion models developed by CSIRO are:
The "Australian Air Quality Forecasting System" is provided jointly by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO. The Bureau of Meteorology generates the high resolution weather forecasts and CSIRO has created computer models to calculate pollution levels.